For exact citations for all the evidence presented here, see our full report.​

Archival Sources

Archives, American Philosophical Society

Charles B. Davenport Papers

Institute Archives, California Institute of Technology

E. S. Gosney Papers And Records Of The Human Betterment Foundation, Archives

Special Collections, Stanford University

David Starr Jordan Papers


Journals and Newspapers

The American Israelite

American Journal of Sociology

The  Atlantic

Boston Daily Globe

The Guardian

Jewish Advocate

New York Times

San Francisco Chronicle

Scientific Monthly

Stanford Daily

Stanford Magazine

American Journal of Sociology


Secondary Sources

Baldwin, Neil. Henry Ford and the Jews: The Mass Production of Hate. New York: Public Affairs, 2003.

Chase, Allan. The Legacy of Malthus: The Social Costs of the New Scientific Racism. Chicago: University of

Illinois Press, 1980.

Comfort, Nathaniel C. The Science of Human Perfection: How Genes Became the Heart of American Medicine.

New Haven: Yale University Press, 2014.

Daar, Judith. The New Eugenics: Selective Breeding in an Era of Reproductive Technologies. New Haven, CT:

Yale University Press, 2018.

Dobkowski, Michael N. The Tarnished Dream: The Basis of American Anti-Semitism. Westport, CT: Greenwood

Press, 1979.

Ekland-Olson, Sheldon. Who Lives, Who Dies, Who Decides?: Abortion, Assisted Dying, Capital Punishment,

and Torture. New York, NY: Routledge, 2012.

Haller, Mark H. Eugenics: Hereditarian Attitudes in American Thought. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University

Press, 1984.

Kline, Wendy. Building a Better Race Gender, Sexuality, and Eugenics from the Turn of the Century to the Baby

Boom. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2005.

Kühl, Stefan. Nazi Connection Eugenics, American Racism, and German National Socialism. New York: Oxford

University Press, 1994.

Lombardo, Paul A. A Century of Eugenics in America: From the Indiana Experiment to the Human Genome Era.

Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2011.

Lovett, Laura L. Conceiving the Future Pronatalism, Reproduction, and the Family in the United States, 1890-

1938. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2009.

O’Brien, Gerald V. Framing the Moron: The Social Construction of Feeble-mindedness in the American Eugenic

Era. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2016.

Roberts, Dorothy E. Killing the Black Body: Race, Reproduction, and the Meaning of Liberty. New York: Vintage

Books, 2017.

Stern, Alexandra Minna. Eugenic Nation: Faults and Frontiers of Better Breeding in Modern America. Berkeley,

CA: University of California Press, 2016. 

Stern, Alexandra Minna. Telling Genes: The Story of Genetic Counseling in America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins

University Press, 2012.

Whitman, James Q. Hitler’s American Model: The United States and the Making of Nazi Race Law. Princeton:

Princeton University Press, 2017.

Winfield, Ann Gibson. Eugenics and Education in America: Institutionalized Racism and the Implications of

History, Ideology, and Memory. New York: Peter Lang, 2007.

Print Primary Sources 

Burlingame, Leonas Lancelot, Harold Heath, Ernest Gale Martin, and George James Pearce. General Biology (New

York: Henry Holt and Company, 1922.

———, Heredity and Social Problems. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1940.

Jordan, David Starr.  The Blood of the Nation: A Study of the Decay of Races Through the Survival of the Unfit.

Boston: American Unitarian Association, 1902.  

———. The Days of a Man: Being Memoirs of a Naturalist, Teacher, and Minor Prophet of Democracy. New

York: World Book Company, 1922.

——— and Vernon Lyman Kellogg. Evolution and Animal Life: An Elementary Discussion of the Facts, Processes,

Laws and Theories Relating to the Life and Evolution of Animals. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1907.

———. The Factors in Organic Evolution: A Syllabus. Boston: Ginn and Company Publishers, 1894.

———. The Heredity of Richard Roe: A Discussion of the Principles of Eugenics. Boston: American Unitarian

Association, 1911.

———. Imperial Democracy: A Study of the Relation of Government by the People, Equality Before the Law, and

Other Tenets of Democracy, To the Demands of a Vigorous Foreign Policy and Other Demands of Imperial Dominion. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1901.

———. War and the Breed: The Relation of War to the Downfall of Nations. Boston: The Beacon Press, 1915.

Shockley, William. Shockley on Eugenics and Race: The Application of Science to the Solution of Human

Problems. Edited by Roger Pearson. Washington, D.C.: Scott-Townsend Publishers, 1992.

Storey, Thomas A. Group Hygiene. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1929.

Terman, Lewis M. The Measurement of Intelligence: An Explanation of and a Complete Guide for the Use of the

Stanford Revision and Extension of the Binet-Simon Intelligence. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1916.